Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) Flour Varieties
as Promising New Ingredients for Gluten-Free Cookies
by Lívia Hajas, László Sipos, Éva Csajbókné Csobod,
Márta Veresné Bálint, Réka Juhász and Csilla Benedek
Foods 2022, Published: 8 July 2022
This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Analysis of Plant-Based Products.
Monotony in a gluten-free (GF) diet can be a challenge because of a limited choice of acceptable cereal sources. This study investigates the potential of five types of differently coloured lentils in the development of GF cookies using rice flour as a reference. Raw materials (lentil flours) and cookies were characterised in terms of physicochemical parameters (e.g., crude protein content, total phenolics and flavonoids, antioxidant properties, colour, pH); additionally, geometry, baking loss and texture profile were determined for the cookies. A sensory acceptance test was also conducted to find out consumer preferences regarding rice versus different lentil cookies. Results showed that lentil cookies were superior to rice control in terms of higher crude protein (12.1–14.8 vs. 3.8 g/100 g), phenolic (136.5–342.3 vs. 61.5 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g) and flavonoid (23.8–75.9 vs. 13.1 mg catechin equivalents/100 g) content and antioxidant capacity (0.60–1.81 vs. 0.35 mmol trolox equivalents/100 g), as well as lower hydroxymethyl-furfural content (<1 vs. 26.2 mg/kg). Consumers preferred lentil cookies to rice ones (overall liking: 6.1–7.0 vs. 5.6, significant differences for red and brown lentils), liking especially their taste (6.3–7.0 vs. 5.5). Depending on the target parameter, whether physicochemical or sensory, these lentil flours can be promising raw materials for GF bakery products.
Keywords: pulses; cookies; protein; antioxidant; texture; sensory properties