Apportionment and districting by Sum of Ranking Differences
Balázs R. Sziklai, Károly Héberger
Published 23 Mar 2020
Sum of Ranking Differences is an innovative statistical method that ranks competing solutions based on a reference point. The latter might arise naturally, or can be aggregated from the data. We provide two case studies to feature both possibilities. Apportionment and districting are two critical issues that emerge in relation to democratic elections. Theoreticians invented clever heuristics to measure malapportionment and the compactness of the shape of the constituencies, yet, there is no unique best method in either cases. Using data from Norway and the US we rank the standard methods both for the apportionment and for the districting problem. In case of apportionment, we find that all the classical methods perform reasonably well, with subtle but significant differences. By a small margin the Leximin method emerges as a winner, but—somewhat unexpectedly—the non-regular Imperiali method ties for first place. In districting, the Lee-Sallee index and a novel parametric method the so-called Moment Invariant performs the best, although the latter is sensitive to the function’s chosen parameter.
Brokering the core and the periphery:
Creative success and collaboration networks in the film industry
Sándor Juhász, Gergő Tóth, Balázs Lengyel
Published 27 Feb 2020
In collaboration-based creative industries, such as film production, creators in the network core enjoy prestige and legitimacy that are key for creative success. However, core creators are challenged to maintain diverse access to new ideas or alternative views that often emerge from the network periphery. In this paper, we demonstrate that creators in the network core can increase the probability of their creative success by brokering peripheral collaborators to the core. The argument is tested on a dynamic collaboration network of movie creators constructed from a unique dataset of Hungarian feature films for the 1990–2009 period. We propose a new way to capture brokers’ role in core/periphery networks and provide evidence that being in the core and at the same time bridging between the core and the periphery of the network significantly increases the likelihood of award winning.