The European Union (EU) likes to think of itself as a leader in
global climate action. It has made substantial progress in decarbonising electricity generation, but this is only the first, relatively “easy” task to be followed by the more difficult problems of heating, industry, and transportation. Transportation is especially concerning as the economies of member states and their labour forces are heavily reliant on the European car industry. The process of decarbonisation is driving a shift from the internal combustion engine (ICE) to an electric vehicle-dominated (EVs) fleet—an important step in the green transition. But electric vehicles pose their own set of challenges. Producing EVs is less labour-intensive and runs the risk of leaving many without jobs, especially when combined with the on-going process of automation.